Glossary of lighting terms (in Chinese and English)
Source: Date:2017-03-28

Baffle——An opaque or translucent element to shield a light source from direct view. 遮光板——可以防止直接看见光源的不透明或半透明的遮挡物   Brightness——The strength of the sensation that results from the eye viewing the surfaces which the light comes from. 亮度——人眼视看发光表面的所感觉感觉到的光线强度   Bulb or lamp——The source of electric light. To be distinguished from the whole assembly (see luminaire). 光源——电气发光源(区别于灯具整体)   Candela (cd)——Unit of luminous intensity. One candela is one lumen per steradian. Formerly called the candle. 坎德拉——光强单位,即单位立体角内的光通量。   CIE——Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. The International Commission on Illumination. 国际照明委员会   Colour rendering——The effect of a light source on the colour appearance of objects in comparison with their colour appearance under a reference source at the same colour temperature. 显色性——光源表现物体外观颜色效果与同样色温下参考光源下的物体外观颜色效果的比较。(博主注:可以理解为光源还原被照物体颜色的能力)    Cut-off angle of a luminaire——The angle measured between the line straight down and the line of sight at which all surfaces of high luminance (of lamps and of the luminaire) just cease to be visible. 灯具截光角——向下垂直线与刚好能看到完整光源的视线的夹角。   Cut-off Luminaire——A luminaire that provides a cut-off (shielding) of the emitted light so that no light is emitted above the horizontal. This applies to all lateral angles around the luminaire. This kind of luminaire is often referred to as Full Cut Off (FCO) or Fully Shielded. 截光型灯具——能提供截光效果的灯具,灯具发出的光线不会溢出到水平线以上 ,一般指完全截光型灯具   Fully Shielded——See definition for Cut-off Luminaire. If a luminaire is to be used which does not comply with this requirement then some form of permanent physical opaque material must be used to provide the cut-off requirement. This can be a cover or part of a building. Care must be taken to ensure that adjacent surfaces, especially if they are  light coloured, are also shielded to prevent excessive reflected light from adding to unwanted sky glow or glare The shielding should be constructed to minimise emission in the 10 degrees below horizontal. 完全截光——参见截光型灯具定义。如灯具不能满足此要求,则需要使用不透明的材料遮挡以满足截光要求。必须注意防止附近的反射面同时被遮挡以避免过多的反射光造成不希望的天空溢散光或眩光。尽量减少水平线下10度夹角内的溢出光线。   Glare——Intense and blinding light. Never helps visibility. This is further described as either discomfort glare which, while causing discomfort, does not necessarily diminish visual performance, or disability glare which results in reduced visual performance and visibility.  眩光——强烈而眩目的光线。对视觉无益。分为不舒适眩光(不会降低视觉性能)和失能眩光(降低视觉性能和可视性)。   HID lamp——In a discharge lamp, the emitted energy (light) is produced by the passage of an electric current through a gas. High-intensity discharge (HID) includes mercury, metal halide, and high pressure sodium lamps. Other discharge lamps are low pressure sodium and fluorescent. HID光源——气体放电光源中,辐射能量(光)是由电流击穿气体而激发的。高强气体放电灯(HID)包括汞灯,金属卤化物灯和高压钠灯。其他的气体放电光源有低压钠灯和荧光灯等。   Illuminance - horizontal——The density of luminous flux incident on a horizontal surface. The unit is lux (lumens/meter2). 水平照度——水平面上的光线密度。单位为勒克司(流明/平方米)   Illuminance – vertical——The density of luminous flux incident on a vertical surface. The unit is lux (lumens/metre²). 垂直照度——垂直面上的光线密度。单位为勒克司(流明/平方米)   IESNA - Illuminating Engineering Society of North America——The US professional society of lighting engineers, including those from manufacturing companies and others professionally involved in lighting. It is the major standardising body for illuminating engineering in the US.  北美照明工程学会——美国照明工程师的专业社团,包括来自制造商和其他专业照明人士,是美国照明工程标准的主要制定者。   IESNA format——One of the recognised electronic formats used to store and present the photometric information which describes the light technical characteristics of luminaires.  IESNA格式——一种被广泛认可的用于储存和表示灯具光线分布(即配光)信息,从而反映灯具的照明技术特性的文件格式。(博主注:即.ies格式灯具配光文件)   Incandescent lamp——Light is produced by a filament heated to a high temperature by electric current. 白炽灯——灯丝通过电流加热至高温而发光的一种光源。   Intensity——The degree or amount of energy or light in a given direction(s). The unit is candela (cd). 光强——光线在某一给定方向上的能量强度或数量,单位为坎德拉。   Light pollution——Any adverse effect of artificial light. Often used to denote urban sky glow, but also includes glare, light trespass, visual clutter, and other adverse effects of lighting. 光污染——人工照明所产生的任何不利效果的光线。通常指城市天空光,也包括眩光,侵入光,视觉杂散光和其他产生有害效果的光线。   Light trespass——Light falling where it is not wanted or needed. The terms Stray Light, Spill Light and Obtrusive Light can also be used to describe this.  侵入光——进入不希望或不需要被照区域的光线。偏移光,溢出光和刺目光通常也包含在此类。     Lumen——The unit of luminous flux which is the light emitted by a lamp. 流明——光源发出光通量的单位   Luminaire——The complete lighting unit, including the lamp, the fixture, and other parts. 灯具——一套完整的照明设施,包括光源,灯壳和其他部件。   Luminance——The amount of light emitted in a given direction from a surface by the light source or by reflection from a surface. The unit is candela per square metre. 亮度——光源某一发光表面或反射面在某一给定方向上的光线数量,单位为坎德拉每平方米。   Lux——One lumen per square metre. The unit of illuminance. 勒克司——一流明每平方米。照度单位。   Mounting height——The height of the fixture or lamp above the ground. 安装高度——灯具或光源的离地高度。   Photometry——The quantitative measurement of light level and distribution.  Strict International and National Standards apply to ensure accuracy.  光度分布——数量上度量光线水平和分布,有严格的国家和国际标准以保证精确性。      Photometric Requirements——Photometric measurements for describing the light technical characteristics of a luminaire, so that they can be used to assess its performance and to enable accurate design calculations to be made. International Standards apply to ensure accurate presentation. 光度分布要求——光度测量是为表明灯具的光线技术特性,因此能够用于评估灯具性能和进行精确照明计算。国际标准以保证其精确性。   Reflected Light——Not all light which causes sky glow is emitted directly from the luminaire. Reflected light from surfaces illuminated by the luminaire can cause varying amounts of sky glow. Light colours reflect more light than darker colours. When floodlights aimed at a grazing angle illuminate a vertical surface which has a specular (shiny) finish (such as windows), up to 70 percent of the light reaching that surface can be directed into the night sky at an equivalent angle. 反射光——并不是所有的天空溢散光都是由灯具造成的。被照表面引起的反射光也能造成相当数量的天空溢散光。浅色表面的反射比深色表面更强。当投光灯以某个角度射向一垂直的镜面或抛光面(如窗户),约70%的光线会以相同的角度直接进入天空。   Spotlight——A fixture or lamp designed to light only a small area. 聚光灯——可以提供小/窄范围光线分布的灯具或光源。   Steradian——Light radiates in a sphere from a single bulb or lamp unless it is modified by a luminaire or baffle. A steradian is the angle, measured at the centre of a sphere, which cuts off an area on the surface of the sphere, that is equal to a square with sides the same length as the radius of the sphere. 立体角——除非使用灯具或格栅,一般而言光源是向四面八方发出光线。一个立体角是以球心为出发的角度,其切割球面的面积除以球面半径的平方。 Sky glow——The brightening of the night sky due to artificial lighting. 天空光——由于人工照明而引起的夜空发亮。   Visibility——Being perceived by the eye. Seeing effectively. The goal of night lighting. 可见度——人眼视觉感知,即视看的有效性。

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