Art Museum, museum exhibits in general are treasures. In order to highlight the performance of the exhibits, need enough illumination. But due to visible light, ultraviolet radiation and thermal radiation will damage the exhibits, so the illumination value should be carefully chosen, to light to display the damage to a minimum.
The degree of damage to the exhibits by the light is mainly determined by three factors: the spectral composition of the light, the intensity of illumination and the illumination time of the exhibits:
1 minimize short wave components
With the incident wavelength of light to blue even into ultraviolet light, to display the damage degree increases. Because the UV is very destructive to the material. Therefore, to use less ultraviolet radiation light source lighting art galleries and museums. Table 5.8.1 compares the damage of different light sources on the exhibits, including minimum the damage degree of white HPS exhibitions. Table 5.8.2 is the result of the research in Japan. The table shows that the damage coefficient of fluorescent UV filter exhibits the smallest. The other from the table can be found. When light from a variety of filters "UV at under nIn radiation, the relative damage coefficient is greatly reduced. In the sunny sky light damage coefficient is 100%, 5.8.1 is" heart damage degree below.Lm the wavelength of the light on the exhibits, can be found when the wavelength of the light is 300nm, The damage degree is as high as 0.8, and its wavelength is greater than 40 nm. The damage degree of light is less than 0.1
2 reduce damage caused by temperature rise
The light incident to the exhibits, a part of the exhibits absorption exhibits caused temperature to dry, if indoor air humidity is insufficient, it will damage the exhibits, because the lighting on and off, which exhibits a temperature rise and repeated cooling, heat expansion and cold contraction, can also damage the thermal effect from infrared exhibits. Part, so try to filter out the infrared light source.
3 limiting illumination and exposure time while limiting illumination and exposure time are complementary to each other. The effect of illumination on the.100lx exhibits a degree of damage of 1000h equivalent to 50lx of the illuminance acting on exhibit 2000h
The discussion according to the above, the art gallery and museum lighting, should choose a suitable light source, and to filter out ultraviolet radiation and infrared radiation. In addition, the different exhibits, should choose the suitable illumination level. Table 5.83 is the maximum illumination CIE recommended value.
Two, design points
Art gallery and museum exhibits in a wall painting, exhibits, and exhibits, tapestry; stereoscopic display cabinets display. Lighting purpose is to correctly reflect the exhibits the shape, color and texture, and reflects the writer's creativity. Therefore in the lighting design should be taken into account:
The illumination, in order to highlight the characteristics of works, so that viewers appreciate the details, exhibits on the surface of the illumination should be big enough. However, because the light source will damage to the exhibits, for the protection of the exhibits, illumination on the not too large, should determine the appropriate illumination, also should consider the coordination between the works and the background illumination.
For three-dimensional sculpture, such as sculpture, the need to highlight the three-dimensional sense of the exhibits, the correct reflection of the performance of the content
The shadow of the shadow. Are eliminated. The three-dimensional exhibits, to create a shadow to highlight its three-dimensional sense. The lighting on the painting, because painting is usually placed in the frame, the frame of shadow will affect the ornamental effect, so to eliminate the shadow.
To prevent the page effect caused by various reflection, because these effects will affect visitors enjoy the exhibits. Given in table 5.8.4 may cause the lighting in the mirror, reflecting glare and reflection curtain and solving method.
The light color and the color of the light source. The exhibits are very rich in color performance, such as oil painting, etc., in order to render the original works as much as possible, should choose a good color rendering light source
Three, lighting mode
1 wall exhibits
The wall exhibits embossed, painting, photo or various wall decoration. General metope exhibits are placed in the glass frame, so pay special attention to prevent the reflected glare, the solution is reasonable choice of the relative position of the light source and the exhibits.
In figure 5.8. 2, the visitor's gaze height is taken as the center of 1.0nm, exhibits a height of 1.65 1.7m, according to people's viewing habits, exhibits center height should not be equal to or less than the height of the visitor's gaze; visitors watch works, and exhibits the distance should be 1 to 1.5 times the length of the diagonal exhibits.
Taking into account the light diffusion. The design should leave room for l support, to minimize the impact; if the angle between the incident light and the vertical surface of the frame is less than 20O, the shadow will fall on the screen, affecting the ornamental effect of the picture, so reasonable to set the position of the light source for shadow area in 5.8.2.
Another way to solve the glare is to tilt the exhibits, as shown in figure 5.8.3
2 display lighting in display cabinet (see figure 5.8.4)
Special attention should be paid to the following points:
The light source which is arranged in the display cabinet should be provided with a light shielding plate, or the angle of the control beam, so that the direct light of the light source does not shoot the eyes of the visitors
Prevent reflection. To prevent the reflection from the glass surface, and the other image of the object itself and the surrounding visitors. If you like the brightness of the reflected longitudinal, through the glass to see the brightness of the display and, with the ratio of pong must be small. According to the experiment, if the gas as the background brightness, brightness as the observation standard the contrast between the two objects, the minimum is Cmin, then the critical condition of reflection does not affect the viewing is like
The above is obtained through the various assumptions of the results, when not affecting the viewing, the maximum vertical position of the visitors, but here we assume that all reflection surfaces are perfectly diffusing surface, this is an extremely ideal situation, but the results can be used as a timing reference.
Four, art museum and museum lighting new way
Fiber-optic lighting is a new lighting system has been widely used. Because of its unique advantages, fiber optic lighting has also been applied to the art gallery and museum lighting, currently in the United States, Japan and some European countries have been applied.
Light art galleries and museums in selection as described in table 5.8.1, in order to preserve the exhibits, to minimize the damage of ultraviolet radiation exhibits, and try to reduce the infrared, to reduce the temperature rise of the exhibits damage. Therefore, the traditional light source of art gallery and museum is using a tungsten halogen lamp and fluorescent lamp the installation of infrared and ultraviolet filters. But the study found that even with a filter, but with the increase of illumination, ultraviolet light and infrared light source has also increased, as shown in figure 5.8.5 and figure 5.8.6. Therefore the limitation of traditional lighting for illumination, in general 200lx.
From the research of optical fiber, optical fiber has the incomparable advantages of the traditional light source, can be used for the treasures of the lighting. Figure 5.8.5 and figure 5.8.6 in multi-component glass fiber (GOF) with the experimental data of infrared filter.GOF is the optical fiber through ultraviolet and infrared transparent easy to difficult. From the curve it can be seen that the amount of infrared ray and ultraviolet quantity with optical fiber is far less than the traditional lighting sources are used; and with the increase of illumination, infrared and ultraviolet light through the quantity basically unchanged. In this way, lighting designers can choose suitable exhibits illumination and ambient illumination according to the needs, to better reflect the exhibits artistic value, and does not damage the exhibits.
Another advantage of optical fiber for art gallery and museum lighting, the light emitting portion and the optical fiber is separated from the generator. So the maintenance is very convenient, especially for the showcase lighting. With traditional lighting, in order to change a light bulb, must open the display cabinet, so as to use a lot of security but also the impact of personnel. The use of optical fiber exhibition. There will be no such trouble.
At present, in addition to GOF, as well as plastic core optical fiber. It has a high degree of flexibility, can be made to make different shapes, so that exhibits more magnificent